Art movements are a collection of paintings which share the same ideals, painting styles, techniques and other characteristics. The painters in one movement will follow strict rules and guidelines in their paintings as opposed to other movements. However, it is still a mystery as to how these movements were formed by the painters during that era since there are no guidelines on how they should paint. It could be that the trend started by one painter was followed by the others and hence it evolved into a movement. Nevertheless, these movements have been a means of categorizing artwork for clear understanding. So here are a few.
This movement can be taken as the stepping stone of modern art. Artists were keen on the effects of weather conditions on landscape. This of course required them to come out of the studios and experience the great outdoors. Since weather conditions didn’t last long, they had very little time and hence you could see short, brisk and colourful brush strokes with less attention to detail. They were more attentive to the overall impression of the painting. The most popular impressionists are Claude Monet, Pierre Auguste Renoir, and Camille Pissaro etc.
This was introduced by Pablo Picasso and Georges Barques in response to the highly changing world. Cubists challenged the traditional art form which used perspective; which is the geometric formula to draw a 3D object on a 2D surface. You may see fine lines in paintings that looked like cubes, which originated the name cubism. The paintings in this era were mostly of motor cars, airplanes, telephones etc. since those were the new invention in that time. Cezanne was another renowned artist who contributed immensely to this movement.
Fauvism is a movement that used exaggerated colours in paintings. The artists in this movement believed that colour could describe a painting than words and hence they used bold and bright colours to freely express emotions. For example, if it was a painting of a fight, the background would be coloured red, to give out the emotions of anger, hurt and blood-shed. Henri Matisse and Andre Derain were the two greatest contributors to this movement.
Expressionism looks at the spiritual and emotional vision of the world. This was mainly based in Germany and other European countries. Expressionists strived to showcase emotional activity such as pain and suffering, than physical activity in their paintings, with the use of vivid colours and distorted shapes. The most popular expressionists were Munch, Vincent Van Gogh etc.