Painting techniques have varied from era to era when considering the history of art. Different painters have used different techniques that they are most comfortable with to get the best out of them. so here are some of the most commonly used painting techniques of all time.
- Oil painting
This method of painting is done by a pigment with the help of drying oils as the binder. The most commonly used walnut oil, poppy seed oil, oils are linseed oil and safflower oil. Each of the oils has its own yellowing amounts, tone and drying speed and hence a painter may use many oils in one painting. Although oil painting was found mostly for the usage of Buddhist paintings by Indians and Chinese in the 15th century, it did not come into popularity till the renaissance period in Europe when artists completely switched to oil paintings.
- Fresco painting
This is a type of mural painting, i.e. painting done on walls directly. Fresco painting was done by water based pigments so that it will merge well with the wet plaster. Fresco painting was very commonly used during the Italian renaissance period. This type of paintings can be seen since ancient Egypt, Sri Lanka, India and even Syria.
The pigments used are water based and can be used on paper or canvas. Most watercolor papers are partially made with cotton so that it could soak up the water in the paint. This type of painting though not very popular in Europe was used widely by a few selected European artists for landscape paintings. However, the colours of these paintings faded with time, which brought down its value and also the usage of watercolours for artwork.
- Sand painting
This is the art of pouring coloured sand or other powdered minerals onto a fixed surface to create a painting. This technique has a great history going back to the Egyptians, Aborigines, Native Americans, Indians and even Tibetans. Sand paintings were mostly done on religious occasions or ceremonies. The colours for the sand are taken from natural sources such as red sandstone, ochre for yellow, coal for black, gypsum for blue etc. If not they used natural pigments from flowers and fruits to colour the sand.
This is the paint made by mixing pigment into a water-soluble base such as egg yolks, honey etc. These paintings are very long lasting which explains the existence of European paintings to date. Before oil painting came into play, tempera was the most commonly used painting technique. Trails of tempera have been found even in ancient Egypt.